How to Heal IBS and Improve Gut Health with the Low FODMAP Diet! – with Dr. Onyx Adegbola

 

Today on the Gut Health Reset Podcast, we are discussing IBS and the low FODMAP diet with Dr. Onyx Adegbola. The Low FODMAP diet is a type of gut-friendly eating pattern that is specifically designed for those suffering from gut issues like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is designed to take out certain carbohydrates and sugars in the gut, which can cause gut distress and upset stomach. Research has pointed to the benefits of this diet plan, showing that it can greatly reduce IBS symptoms and promote better gut health overall. While this approach is not necessarily a one-size-fits all fix-all solution for gut issues, studies have shown that it is effective in restoring balance and improving gut functionality.

 

In today’s episode, we will answer these questions:

– Why is the low FODMAP diet worth trying?

– Is the low FODMAP diet good for your gut health?

– What are the biggest causes of IBS?

– How do stress and trauma factor into IBS?

– And more!

 

Still want to learn more? Schedule with Dr. Barter today!

 

Recommended Products From Today’s Show

IBS Support Probiotic Capsules

Binding Fiber Support Capsules

 

About Dr. Onyx Adegbola:

Dr. Onyx Adegbola, MD PhD, is a physician scientist and former pharmaceutical executive. Dr. Adegbola received her PhD at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and completed her medical training at Columbia University and the University of Pennsylvania. A mother of rambunctious triplets, she has observed the effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet for digestive sensitivities first hand in her own family. Dr. Adegbola is a member of Mensa who enjoys cooking and reading in her spare time.
Website: https://casadesante.com/

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Dr. Ann-Marie Barter is a Functional Medicine and Chiropractic Doctor at Alternative Family Medicine & Chiropractic. She is the clinic founder of Alternative Family Medicine & Chiropractic that has two offices: one in Longmont and one in Denver. They treat an array of health conditions overlooked or under-treated by conventional medicine, called the “grey zone”. https://altfammed.com/

http://drannmariebarter.com/

*As always, this podcast is not designed to diagnose, treat, prevent or cure any condition and is for information purposes only. Please consult with your healthcare professional before making any changes to your current lifestyle.*

 

Transcription:

[00:00:00] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: The low FODMAP diet, it, it’s good for some people, but not for everybody. So it is a good, um, catchall, you know, a good approach to start off with a lot of people. Just finding out what the, the root cause of the IBS is, is, is, is helpful.
[00:00:15] Disclaimer: The information provided in this podcast is educational and not intended to diagnose or treat medical.
[00:00:21] Intro: Are you struggling with bloating, gas, constipation, and fatigue, but don’t know what’s causing these problems? The Gut Health Reset Podcast with Dr. Annemarie barter dive steep into the root causes behind these issues that start in the gut. This podcast will give you the knowledge you need to heal your gut and reset your health.
[00:00:42] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Today on the Gut Health Reset Podcast, we are talking about I b. Some lifestyle changes, stress reduction techniques, eliminating some of the trigger foods, a low FODMAP diet and evidence base strategies to improve gut health. Thank you so [00:01:00] much for joining us here today on the Gut Health Reset Podcast.
[00:01:02] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: I’m your host, Dr. Anne Marie Barter, and today my special guest is Dr. Onyx Adegbola. She received her PhD from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and completed medical training at Columbia University and the University of Pennsylvania. She has over 10 years of experience as a pharmaceutical executive developing drugs for cancer, dementia, and other disease.
[00:01:26] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: She’s a board certified medicine physician who’s passionate about using evidence-based lifestyle approaches to manage chronic diseases. She has a special interest in gut health and she is the founder of Casa de Sante. Thank you, Dr. Onyx, for being here today. I’m very excited to have you and, um, and talk about some of these, uh, things that you specialize in, which we’ll get into in just a second.
[00:01:51] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: But thank you so much for being.
[00:01:53] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Thanks so much for having me on your podcast. I’m very excited to be here and sharing, um, the excitement of gut [00:02:00] health with, um, your listeners, right?
[00:02:02] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Yeah. Tell me what, tell me what got you passionate about gut health, um, and, and what kind of made you go in this direction to start holistically healing people’s guts?
[00:02:14] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Yeah, so I, my interest really started with my bro, one of my siblings who was, um, Diagnosed with I b s and he had, um, he was having bloating and um, issues after eating. And then, and that’s why I realized, you know, I guess when it sort of strikes close to home, then you realize really how common this issue is.
[00:02:35] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: And even though, uh, my background is in. Medicine and, um, conventional medicine there. I do understand that there are some limits, uh, to conventional medicine and, um, we, there are a lot of patients who have got issues whose, uh, who are not helped with conventional medications and that’s why. It’s, it was so important for those patients and people like my [00:03:00] sibling to, um, have the, um, have access to alt alternative approaches that have been shown to work for gut health.
[00:03:08] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: And so that’s when I got interested in exploring, um, some of these, um, alternative approaches such as diet. Um, for example, uh, he was on the low Ford diet and there weren’t a lot of, um, there weren’t a lot of, um, available products in the market at the time for. And so I, I, I, we started off with the low food diet and then as I got, um, more in, invested in the community and part of the community, I understood more and more, um, some of the gaps, um, some, some of the, um, some things that are not, Treatable by Western medicine.
[00:03:47] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: And so how important it is to not just look at medication, but to look at everything holistically and at diet. Um, think of the mind God connection. And I, you know, think of all that when you’re treating [00:04:00] people who have, um, gut health issues.
[00:04:02] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Yeah. So I, I like that you mentioned the low diet. I feel like there’s, um, you know, uh, it’s, it can be recommended and some people shy away from it because it is, Incredibly restrictive, but it does certainly help with things like i b s and sibo.
[00:04:21] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: So, um, you know, I think one of the, one of the biggest, uh, comments that patients say to me on the low FODMAP diet is it’s, it’s hard for them to, to do it because it can be so restrictive. , when you’re working with folks, um, how do you encourage them to continue or, or how do you modify to make it a little easier for people that are struggling?
[00:04:46] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Yeah, that’s, that’s such a great point because you’re right. And a lot of people find it, uh, very restrictive. And it’s not just, um, a, it’s not just ex eliminating one particular type of food. It’s, you know, a whole bunch of foods and then you have to keep [00:05:00] track of them. And then, you know, you can have the food, well then you can only have a certain amount
[00:05:05] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So it. It does get confusing for people. And so, and also one of the, um, one of the high map foods is onion on garlic, for example, which is in so many foods. So it’s, you know, just removing allion on garlic from your diet can make, it, can shrink your diet ex extremely to a very extreme amount that can be very difficult for people to follow.
[00:05:30] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Uh, so what we, so what we do recommend is, you know, for people who, Absolut. Cannot follow the low for diet or for people who want, um, to try their toes, uh, you know, to sort dip their toes in and try it a little bit and see if they can get some relief. It’s something like a low for light where you eliminate the kumos, common triggers like, um, on garlic, um, you eliminate milk and you know, gluten, um, wheat and, you know, um, all, [00:06:00] although you’re actually not eliminating gluten, a lot of products that have gluten also.
[00:06:06] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Fructans that are, um, that are not, that are high for map. So you eliminate things like that, you know, a few pro, a few items like that that did the most common corporates and then you work from there. So that’s a modified low for map like diet now. Um, and then also we provide a lot of resources, uh, for people, um, to stay on the low Ford Diet.
[00:06:29] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Um, there are apps out there that they can follow. Following the low form diet easier. So, you know, we suggest using that if you can. Um, working with the dietician is always, um, recommended, but it’s not possible for everybody. And you know, and also you don’t always have access to the dietician, um, when you need them because it’s not, like, not generally an on-demand thing.
[00:06:51] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So when you have questions, you know, looking at the resources out there and, um, and, and, and taking advantage of that is, it’s very helpful. [00:07:00] And then also for some people there’s also a mindset part of it. You know, just getting their mind and encouraging them to continue on the diet because you might not see results in immediately.
[00:07:13] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: You could fall back like any other diet maybe. One day, you know, fall back on the diet and then you, you get very, you know, it’s like, oh gosh, I, you know, I’ve, I’m falling back on the diet. It’s, um, it’s terrible. Like, I, you know, I can, I can’t continue and stuff like that. And so having a coach or, or somebody that can help with the mind, but God, aspects of it, uh, can also be helpful.
[00:07:35] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So those are all the things that we recommend for people, you know, to try in, uh, various situations just to help them get through the. It
[00:07:44] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: was interesting. There was a, there was a study that came out in 2017 that was, um, pretty hard on the low FODMAP diet and we definitely know that it works. You know, it’s very helpful for i b s and a lot of people naturally eliminate [00:08:00] gluten and eliminate dairy, and then they notice some huge improvements when they will eliminate something like onion and garlic out of their diet, like the low FOD map, light, light diet.
[00:08:10] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: So people just start to realize that. There the criticism of this study actually said, Hey, like you’re, you’re changing the gut microbiome in a not so favorable way. Um, what’s, what’s been your experience with that? Do you feel like that was, is that a true Uh, cuz that, that’s not what been what I’ve found personally.
[00:08:35] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Yeah. Yeah. I Drew agree with you. There have been quite a few papers that have talked about that. That, you know, there’s a potential for changing the gut microbiome and it could be negative. And so I think you. For that. What I would say in that case is that, you know what we should probably does not, you know, it’s not something low for, my diet is not a long-term diet, so, you know, not [00:09:00] encourage, um, patients to stay on it.
[00:09:01] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Right. Well for at least for me, I feel that, you know, if you are not staying on it low, long term and you just find out what the issues are and you eliminate those foods and then you get back to your normal diet as much as possible, then. No longer an issue. So, um, as much as possible, we’ll try and emphasize the patients that, you know, it’s a, a short term diet, you know, it’s, um, and.
[00:09:24] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: They do, if they do have effects, which I have like you, I haven’t really seen that . Right. But, um, you know, maybe taking probiotics would be helpful, but I have iq I haven’t seen that, that at all. And you know, I expect for a lot of patients it’s just a shot them thing and they’ll get back, um, to, uh, regular as much as the regular diet as they can once they’ve identified their triggers.
[00:09:46] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Yeah.
[00:09:46] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: So, um, so when a, when a patient comes into me with I b s, I definitely run a stool test and do. Which it sounds like you also treat supplementally with, um, some, some supplements [00:10:00] as well. Um, so I, I think sometimes the criticism of just doing the low FODMAP diet is, are you getting to the root cause of the problem?
[00:10:08] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Are you actually addressing what’s really there? Um, so what’s, what’s your approach when somebody comes in with i b s, for example? Uh, so yeah,
[00:10:19] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: so I, you. When people have ib s uh, Sarah, I agree with you. You know, they, they’re different causes. So, um, the Lawford Map diet I is good for some people, but not for everybody.
[00:10:30] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So just finding out what the, the root cause of the IB S is, is, is, is helpful. Uh, the Lawford map diet is a good, um, catchall, you know, a good approach to start off with a lot of people and. For some people it doesn’t work. I have, you know, like they say, the studies are like 75% of patients are helped by the low TIB diet, and I do see a lot of patients who are not helped by the diet or whose tri, you know, whose triggers don’t conform with the diet at all.
[00:10:58] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: And, um, [00:11:00] and so for those patients, um, you know, they have to look at all the things. So we encourage, uh, work with our, um, a group, we work with the, the patients to find out what other issues that can, um, that can be causing the issues like, you know, diary, um, testing and, um, medications just to find out, you know, if it’s not necessarily the low for my diet is not helping them, what could be, um, causing their issues and how could we help?
[00:11:28] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So, um, yes, it’s accurately the low. My bright is not the end all, ambi all, and you know, you often have to, um, supplement it with other approaches. Hey,
[00:11:39] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: this is Dr. Annemarie barter. Have you ever spent hours searching for the right supplements to heal your body? And when you finally found him, maybe you weren’t sure it was a brand that you could trust, or if the products were.
[00:11:52] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: After hearing about these issues time
[00:11:54] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: and time again,
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[00:12:20] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: These supplements I use personally or I’ve handpicked because they’ve worked time and time again on countless cases. In the office and on the website, you can see what ingredients we use to put your mind at ease. If you visit Dr anne-marie barter.com and use the promo co podcast to get 10% off your next order.
[00:12:44] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: So what are you waiting for? Go visit Dr. Anne-Marie barter and get 10% off your supplement bundle. Ciao. And now back to our episode. What have you found? In testing is, uh, the cause [00:13:00] that you’ve seen, you know, and it’s not only one cause, but what have you seen is, is a contributing factor to ibs.
[00:13:09] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So, so I feel for a lot of, uh, patients, um, infection first, infection IBS is, um, something that we often see.
[00:13:17] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Um, so that, apart from, um, not really knowing the cost, because sometimes it’s not, it really isn’t easy to find out or figure out what the cost of the IBS is. Um, but, um, post, um, having post-infection IBS is a, is a huge one that we. Um, I would say that that’s, you know, out of all the cause of ibs, that’s probably the, the, apart from that, you know, always finding out what the cost is.
[00:13:44] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: That’s probably the biggest one for us
[00:13:47] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: post food poisoning. What, what have you seen most consistently post food poisoning? I mean, some people believe that food poisoning is kind of the link You get food poison and then you have post-infection post after [00:14:00] that. Um, what have you specifically. Um, yeah,
[00:14:04] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: you know what, that’s, it was like when patients talk to you, um, sometimes they lump in food, poison and infection.
[00:14:11] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: They just know that they’re feeling sick and they could, you know, so it’s, you know, it could be an infection, it could be food poisoning. So they sort of lump it together. So I would just lump that, you know, together as probably the, the, the biggest, um, factor for us. Uh, sometimes it’s also linked with sibo, uh, for some, for some, for some patient.
[00:14:29] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: But I tend to separate, um, IB S and sibo, even though for some people it’s, um, it’s, um, it seems to me that they sort of put it together the same thing in, in the, for patients in their experiences, the same thing. And they also have patients with I B D who sometimes have IB S symptoms, so that’s another group.
[00:14:47] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Uh, but I will begin, I sort of think of that as a little distinct, distinctive, um, situ. .
[00:14:53] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Okay. Yeah. And, and you also say that you believe stress is maybe also a [00:15:00] contributing factor and or, or maybe even practicing some stress reduction techniques to help. How do you feel like stress plays a role? Um, in i b s?
[00:15:12] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Yeah. I, I, you know, for a lot of patients it’s either, it could be a flare, it could cause flares, or it’s, uh, or a con contributive. And so that’s, as we know, the mind brainin connection is, is there. And so, um, having, um, things that we feel, you know, the gut, the gut, the gut-brain connection is the, the way through the ve nerve is something that often for, for a lot of patients, either causes, um, uh, a flare or excessive beta flare.
[00:15:42] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So we, we do find that, um, for a lot of patients, Mind, mind, brain techniques, relaxation techniques, helps, um, just, um, going through even to some patient hypnotherapy, even though we don’t, we, we don’t offer that, but they, we do encourage [00:16:00] patients when they need it to use hi hypnotherapy, for example, um, could help them by just controlling the link between the, the brain and the gut and, um, and doing that.
[00:16:13] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Or, uh, relieve or stop, um, flares or that that helps? Uh, well, for patients we do, we see that? Have
[00:16:21] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: you seen trauma be a link to i b s? Um, uh, they, they have shown in the literature a link to sexual assault and sexual trauma as a result, and we know that i b s is more common in females, and they do, I think they definitely have a higher likelihood of being sexually assault.
[00:16:41] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Um, have you seen any link between any sort of trauma in i b. So,
[00:16:48] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: um, we, we haven’t, uh, we haven’t seen that we, I, we haven’t seen that. I would, you know, think of that in sort of attribute traumas to stress [00:17:00] factor mm-hmm. . So, um, the, the trauma results in stress and then, you know, the patient just generate talks about the stress of, you know, maybe a traumatic event and the stress, uh, from that and that, and then, then just generally increasing the level of stress that they.
[00:17:17] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So, yeah, so, uh, I, yeah, suddenly trauma linked to stress resulting in stress can definitely, um, exacerbate and, um, IBS or even cause IBS flare. Are there
[00:17:30] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: any stress reduction techniques that you think are, uh, particularly helpful for somebody experiencing, um, IBS
[00:17:39] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: issues? Um, yeah, absolutely. Things like meditation.
[00:17:44] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: We, we, we recommend meditation a lot. Um, mind body relaxation techniques can help, hypnotherapy helps. Um, I, I, you know, I personally experienced IBS when I was in a stressful job, . And, [00:18:00] um, I, I was very, I was, um, I was an executive at the company and was an extremely stressful, um, job. I, I went to the ER a couple of times actually with this horrible abdominal, um, symptoms of pain, basically, and cramps, and they did everything, ultrasounds, um, testing, and nothing was found on 2, 2, 2 or three occasions.
[00:18:27] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: But once I left that job, the stress evaporated and I haven’t had issues since. So I, you know, can certainly imagine, uh, being in a continually stressful situ. Can we, um, can be very, uh, very tough, um, uh, in, in terms of causing IB s flares and, um, accessibility in them. So yeah, the, so we find the mind, mind, body techniques, relaxation, like I said, meditation, uh, very helpful, uh, for sports
[00:18:54] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: situations.
[00:18:56] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Yeah, I think you bring up a really good point, um, you know, [00:19:00] with the stress or being in a stressful job and having a flare and, and to me it appears that a lot. People are under either stress from old trauma or stress from a continued, like a job that is just highly stressful or it’s perceived stress, right?
[00:19:17] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: I mean, you know, like whatever you’ve experienced before, if this is kind of the upper level for that, it’s too much. I personally, and I don’t know about you, but I find that people are kind of addicted to their. . Um, you know, so if somebody, you know, if you went to go get help for that and someone said, Hey, it would be a really good idea if you quit your job, you know, on the first Yeah.
[00:19:39] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Visit or the two, maybe the er to, to see somebody. I mean, I, I don’t know. Uh, most people don’t. I don’t know if that would’ve been a step you would’ve made, but I think it’s really hard for people to make that. Initial step. I’m not sure what your experience has been. Oh yeah,
[00:19:55] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: it is. I agree with you. And you know, in this situation of, you know, the last few years, we are [00:20:00] people and that’s actually something else we’ve seen where people have lived in a situation of constant stress with, with Covid and the pandemic.
[00:20:07] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: And the restrictions and everybody worried about the situation and then, and you know, and then the economy and everything. It’s just been a, it’s right now a really stressful time for a lot of people of ongoing stress. And, you know, we have all, you have all the end dolphins, everything, all the stress response at high alert, all the stress at response hormones at high alert and, um, yeah, can definitely, can definitely see.
[00:20:31] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: You also talk about, um, evidence-based strategies to help with, to heal your gut and help with gut health. And I know that we’ve already talked about some of those strategies already, but what are some other strategies that are evidence-based to really help with your gut health? Um, so
[00:20:51] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: we, so yeah, a platform, the low format diet, if you’re having issues, and for some people there’s also an element of.[00:21:00]
[00:21:00] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Gluten intolerance or intolerance to certain foods or chemicals, which you should in, in food, which people, uh, should definitely look. And, uh, if they haven’t got issues and eliminate those, um, from the diet. So, um, there’s the PHY diet, for example. Um, low histamine diet, you know, so there’s, there’s quite a few, um, dietary strategies that one could look at apart from the low fot diet.
[00:21:26] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Um, to help with gut health. Um, also probiotics, um, in, in certain patients could be helpful. Um, for example, somebody is taking the antibiotics, for example, and you don’t want to, um, you don’t want to clear out your gut bacteria, your helpful gut bacteria, and end up with, um, um, something like, uh, a chronic infection.
[00:21:49] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Uh, so in, in that case, um, probiotics could be helpful. Um, and um, you know, just making sure you take a lot in enough fiber in the diet. Um, I think that’s just helpful for, [00:22:00] that’s just good. Um, got hygiene for everybody. Whether you are, you are having got issues or not, uh, just make sure you’re going, you know, regularly.
[00:22:09] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: And that also helps with things like colon cancer, um, you know, having a good diet, getting rest and exercise, drinking enough water, getting, you know, staying dehydrated. Um, uh, those are just general, um, principles that we, uh, we recommend for, uh, good gut health. Awesome.
[00:22:29] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Are there any topics that I didn’t cover that you think are maybe important to cover on gut health?
[00:22:36] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: I guess one thing I would say is, you know, I see a lot of people who have, uh, got issues or accepting them and just trying to leave with them. So I would urge, you know, if you have a, uh, you know, someone like diarrhea every morning or you can’t go out because you are, you are afraid that’s gonna be an accident or you can’t enjoy yourself, um, at, uh, with, [00:23:00] with people.
[00:23:01] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: And, uh, your life is restricted in any way because of got issues, I will, you know, say you don’t have to accept it. Uh, you can look for help. Uh, you don’t have to. Uh, if your doctor is not, uh, your healthcare provider is not taking you seriously or you are not getting the help you feel you need, uh, you should look, you, you should look at for somebody else to help you.
[00:23:24] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: You don’t have to accept. And so I, I think, feel that in the healthcare system that we have today, um, the way people have just like 15 minutes or 20 minutes, um, appointments with the healthcare provider, and that’s just not, that’s just really not enough. If you, for some people, if you have chronic gut issues and you need, uh, a provider, you know, you need to look for the provider who has the time and the um, and the expertise to really, um, Make sure that you get the help, uh, for your gut issues and get to the root cause of your gut issues.
[00:23:57] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: So, uh, [00:24:00] yeah, that’s, that’s, I, I don’t think that our healthcare system as is, is necessarily GE geared towards, um, helping people with, uh, chronic gut, uh, problems. Yeah. Yeah. Well,
[00:24:10] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: thank you very much for being here. Where can people find you if they wanna get in touch?
[00:24:17] Dr. Onyx Adegbola: Yeah, so we, we at casa do com, um, and we are also on all the social media platforms, Facebook, Instagram, uh, Twitter, and, uh, we share as much, um, information as we can on gut health, uh, just to help, uh, people feel better.
[00:24:34] Dr. Ann-Marie Barter: Awesome. Well, thank you so much for being here and to everyone else out there, thank you so much for listening and just shoot us a message, let us know what you wanna hear more of and we will, uh, work on getting that on the show. Thank you so much. Thank
Thank you for listening to the Gut Health Reset podcast. Please make sure you subscribe, leave a rating and a review so more people can hear about the podcast. And hey, take a screenshot of this episode and tag Dr. Annemarie on Instagram or Facebook at Dr. Ann-Marie Barter. And for more resources, just visit drannmariebarter.com.

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